Glossary of Human Service Terms

Human Services Glossary

Abnormal Behavior – A general term referring to behavior that is unusual to the degree that it exceeds the boundaries of what society views as normal.

AccessibleBuildings, structures, programs, transportation services, public services, etc. that are designed or modified to enable people with disabilities to use them without undue difficulty and that conform to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements.

Examples include ramps for entering and exiting buildings, TTY relay services for telephone use, lifts on public transportation, and documents in Braille, large print, CD, etc.

AccommodationThe removal of barriers or making special arrangements that allows full participation of persons with disabilities in all activities in keeping with the provisions of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Acting Out – Expressions of unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings in actions rather than words (self- abusive, aggressive, violent and/or disruptive behaviors).

Active Treatment – Implementation of specialized and generic training, treatment, health services and related services that lead to the acquisition of the behaviors necessary for the person to function with as much self-determination and independence as possible and to prevent regression or loss of current functional status.

Adaptive Behavior – Collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that people have learned so they can function in their everyday lives. A person’s ability to effectively meet social and community expectations for personal independence, maintenance of physical needs, acceptable social norms and interpersonal relationships. Significant limitations in adaptive behavior impact a person’s daily life and affect the ability to respond to a particular situation or to the environment.

Advocacy – The process of actively speaking out, writing in favor of, supporting, and/or acting on behalf of oneself, another person, or a cause. Advocacy can be any action to assure the best possible services for or intervention in the service system on behalf of an individual or group.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-336)Guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodation, transportation, state and local government services and telecommunications.

Assessment – A collecting and bringing together of information about a person’s treatment, training, educational and support needs, which may include social, psychological, medical, vocational and educational evaluations used to determine appropriate programs or services.

Assistive Technology – The systematic application of technology, engineering methodologies, or scientific principles to meet the needs of, and address the barriers confronted by, persons with disabilities in areas including education, employment, support employment, transportation, independent living and other community living arrangements.  This term includes assistive technology devices and assistive technology services.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)- A diagnosis with symptoms that may include difficulty paying attention, being easily distracted and the inability to focus more than a few moments on mental tasks. (See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.) Most people with ADD alone are not eligible for developmental disabilities services.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)- A diagnosis with symptoms that may include difficulty focusing attention and effort to tasks, difficulty in impulse control or delay of gratification and increased activity unrelated to the current task or situation.

Augmentative Communication – Any approach designed to support, enhance or supplement the communication of people who are not independent verbal communicators in all situations.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)Disorders of communication and behavior. ASDs are brain dysfunctions that affect a person’s ability to understand what he/she sees, hears, and otherwise senses.

Autism – A complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is a result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain. Autism impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Children and adults with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions and leisure or play activities. Autism is the most common of five disorders coming under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD).

Barrier-Free Facility – A building or other structure that is designed and constructed so that people with mobility impairments (such as those in wheelchairs) can move freely throughout and access all areas without encountering architectural obstructions.

Benefits (Financial)Any of a number of financial public assistance programs from federal, state or local sources that may be available to provide funding for eligible applicants who have

intellectual disabilities. Some types of benefits are Supplemental Security Income, Social Security Disability Insurance, Medicaid, Community Alternatives Programs/ Developmental Disability, Community Alternatives Program/Disabled Adult, Specialized Nursing Facility, Intermediate Care Facility.

Brain InjuryAny level of injury to the brain often caused by an impact with the skull.

Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)A brain injury that occurs after birth. It can be a result of an internal injury (e.g., tumor, stroke, aneurysm), an external injury (e.g., motor vehicle accident, fall, sports injury) or ingestion of a toxic substance. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a form of ABI.

Case History – Information compiled, typically from service and support providers, family, and involved others, regarding the person’s developmental, medical, social, educational, vocation and familial history.

Cerebral Palsy (CP) – A condition caused by damage to the motor areas of the brain, usually occurring before, during or shortly following birth and disrupting the brain’s ability to adequately control movement and posture. CP can range from mild to severe.

Citizen Advocacy – A one-to-one relationship between a capable volunteer and a person with a developmental disability who requires the assistance of an advocate in order to become a more independent, active and contributing member of society. It is also a method of assisting those persons to deal with problem situations, to protect their rights and to facilitate their integration into the community. It is not meant to replace the professional services that persons with developmental disabilities need and deserve, but to complement them with a supportive relationship with a person from the community.

Civil Rights – The rights of a citizen of the United States that deal with the right to due process, informed consent, appeal, petition for change, equal protection under the law, adult patterns of behavior, education, equal opportunity, and opportunities in a least restrictive setting.

Cognitive – A term that describes the process people use for remembering, reasoning, understanding, problem solving, evaluating and using judgment. Simply put, it is what a person knows and understands.

Cognitive Development – The development of skills necessary for understanding and organizing the world, including such perceptual and conceptual skills as discrimination, memory, sequencing, concept formation, generalization, reasoning, and problem solving.

Cognitive Impairments – Relates to impairments of a person in their ability or level of proficiency in thinking, processing information, and knowledge.

Communication Disorders – Inability to communicate effectively due to a hearing loss, a speech disorder, or a language disorder.

Communication Assistive Devices – Any device that helps a person in communicating with others such as hearing aids, picture books, computers, electronic communication devices, communication boards, or hands free telephones.

Community Home -A living option, certified, licensed, or monitored by the Department of Health and Hospitals, where six or fewer people with developmental disabilities reside.

Conduct Disorder – A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in children and adolescents in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated. Behaviors that may be exhibited: aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness, lying or stealing and serious violation of rules.

Confidentiality– The process of keeping private information private; notifying involved persons for permission prior to the sharing of information.

Congenital Brain Injury (CBI)A brain injury that is present at birth and may be due to genetic or environmental occurrences.

Consent – Compliance in or approval by a person with a disability or his/her legal guardian of what is done or is proposed that affects that person’s life.

Conservatorship – Legal relationship between a protected person and one or more individuals (conservator) appointed by the court to make decisions on behalf of a protected person limited to the management of the property and financial affairs. As with guardianship, a conservatorship may be full, limited, temporary or joint (see definition of guardianship for descriptions).

Consumer – A person with developmental disabilities.

Co-Occurring Disabilities – Combination of developmental disabilities and mental illness; developmental disabilities and drug or alcohol addiction. Also referred to as dual diagnosis or multiple disabilities.

Cognitive DisabilitySee Intellectual Disability.

ConsumersPeople with disabilities or parents/guardians of people with disabilities who may use or need services or supports. Other commonly used terms are “participants” and “clients.”

See Self-Advocates.

Dangerous to Others” – The condition of a person whose behavior or significant threats support a reasonable expectation that there is a substantial risk that he will inflict physical harm upon another person in the near future.

Dangerous to Self” -The condition of a person whose behavior, significant threats, or inaction supports a reasonable expectation that there is a substantial risk that he will inflict significant physical or severe emotional harm upon his own person; or the inability of a person, independently of needs; or his inability to protect himself from serious harm due to his inability to discern the dangers and hazards found in everyday life.

Department – Department of Health and Hospitals

Developmental Center – An administrative unit of the office under its administration, supervision, and control through which the office provides and develops developmental disabilities services and system capacity building efforts.  Developmental centers are responsible for:

a. Planning and providing living options and other developmental disabilities services as determined by the office.

b. Stimulating and supporting capacity building within the system through resource centers, technical assistance, training, and other means as determined by the office.

Developmental Disability (DD)Louisiana Law R.S.28:451.1-455 defines a developmental disability as:

(a) A severe, chronic disability of a person that:

(i)  Is attributable to an intellectual or physical impairment or combination of intellectual and physical impairments.

(ii) Is manifested before the person reaches age twenty-two.

(iii) Is likely to continue indefinitely.

(iv) Results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the following areas of major life activity:

(aa) Self-care.

(bb) Receptive and expressive language.

(cc) Learning.

(dd) Mobility.

(ee) Self-direction.

(ff) Capacity for independent living.

(gg) Economic self-sufficiency.

(v) Is not attributed solely to mental illness.

(vi) Reflects the person’s need for a combination and sequence of special, interdisciplinary, or generic care, treatment, or other services which are of lifelong or extended duration and are individually planned and coordinated.

(b) A substantial developmental delay or specific congenital or acquired condition in a person from birth through age nine which, without services and support, has a high probability of resulting in those criteria in Subparagraph (a) of this Paragraph later in life that may be considered to be a developmental disability.

Developmental Disabilities Services – Programs, services, and supports for persons with developmental disabilities that include but are not limited to information and referral services, support coordination services, system entry services, development of the support profiles and plans, individual and family support services, living options, habilitation services, and vocational services.

Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition Revised) (DSM IV) – A classification system for mental illnesses developed by the American Psychiatric Association.

Disclosure – To permit access to or the release, transfer or other communication of a person’s records or the personally identifiable information contained in those records to any party, by any means, including oral, written or electronic.

Distractibility– Attention drawn too frequently to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli.

Example: While being interviewed, a subject’s attention is repeatedly drawn to noise from an adjoining office, a book that is on a shelf, or the interviewer’s school ring.

Down SyndromeA genetic condition caused by a chromosomal abnormality resulting in some degree of intellectual disability and other developmental delays. Common physical features of Down syndrome include small stature, decreased muscle tone, flattened bridge of the nose and upward slant to the eyes.

Empowerment– The interaction with people with disabilities and their families in such a way that they are afforded the greatest possible control and choice over all aspects of their lives and the lives of their children.

Entitlement – To give a right, claim or legal title to, qualify.

Epilepsy – A neurological condition that makes people susceptible to seizures. A seizure is a change in sensation, awareness or behavior brought about by a brief electrical disturbance in the brain. Seizures vary from a momentary disruption of senses to short periods of unconsciousness or staring spells to convulsions (rapidly alternating contractions of the muscles causing irregular movement of the limbs or body). Doctors treat epilepsy primarily with seizure preventing medicine. These medicines are not a cure but they control seizures in the majority of people with epilepsy.

Equal Access – The elimination of barriers that prohibit any person with a disability from participating in activities or using facilities and services typically utilized by people without disabilities.

Expressive Language Disability/Disorders – A learning disability in which a person has problems expressing him/herself through speech or has difficulties in language production.

Facility administrator -The official appointed as the head of a state or privately operated residential facility and includes anyone designated by the facility administrator to act on behalf of the facility administrator.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning disabilities with possible lifelong implications. FASD is characterized by brain damage, facial deformities, and growth deficits. Heart, liver and kidney defects also are common, as well as vision and hearing problems. People with FASD have difficulties with learning, attention, memory, and problem-solving. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE) are other terms used to refer to specific problems that are included in FASD.

Group Homea living option, certified, licensed, or monitored by the department, where seven to fifteen people with developmental disabilities reside.

GuardianA person or organization appointed by the court for the purpose of performing duties related to the care, custody, or control of an individual and which may include, but is not limited to, consenting for medical/surgical or treatment procedures and handling of business and legal affairs. In the case of a minor, it is a parent or someone standing in “loco parentis.”

Guardianship – Legal relationship that give an individual(s) or agency (the guardian) the responsibility for the personal affairs of the protected person. There are four types:

  • Full Guardianship provides the guardian with decision making authority and responsibility over the protected person’s personal affairs;
  •  Limited Guardianship gives the guardian decision-making authority and responsibility over only selected areas that the protected person has been determined unable to manage by him/herself, i.e., health care decisions;
  •  Temporary Guardianship is the type the court may appoint for a 90-day period if it is felt that such an appointment is in the persons best interest; and
  • Joint Guardianship is when more than one person acts as guardian at the same time and shares in the decision-making authority and responsibilities.

Habilitation – Training available to people who need to acquire particular skills and/or functional abilities they did not possess previously, such as independent living skills or vocational skills.

HandicapAn outdated term referring to physical and social barriers that put people with disabilities at a disadvantage and hinder their ability to fully participate in the community. A person with a disability is not “handicapped” but may be limited by attitudinal, physical and other barriers that society fails to remove.

Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) – Title XIX Medicaid funded programs/ services, purchased by the Division of Developmental Disabilities from Adjustment Training Centers (ATCs), based on a waiver of federal regulations pertaining to the ICF/MR program and with the same eligibility criteria. HCBS funding can be used for children or adults.

Examples of services provided: service coordination (case management), training and habilitation services, pre-vocational training and supported employment. This service offers 24-hour services as needed by the eligible person.

Human Services Authority or District – A regional or other locally-based agency established by state law with assigned powers, duties and functions regarding the delivery of mental health, developmental disabilities, and addictive disorders services funded by appropriations from the state and provided through memoranda of agreement with the program offices of the department.  Human services authorities and districts are responsible for all of the following:

(a) Providing determination for entry into the system, development of the support profile, and support coordination.

(b) Providing individual and family support services, living options, and other developmental disabilities services directly or by contract or individual agreements as determined by the office.

Inclusion – The use of the same community resources that are used by and available to other citizens, participation in the same community activities, living in homes, apartments or other home-like environments, working in community employment, developing friendships/relationships.

Independent LivingIndependent living refers to achieving the ability to live in the home of one’s choice in the community with some level of support that may or may not be reduced over time. It refers to learning skills that enable one to participate in activities of choice in one’s community, to manage one’s affairs, to have relationships and may include maintaining employment. It also refers to a program operated by Vocational Rehabilitation Services that provides funds to enable people with disabilities to live in their communities.

Independent Living ProgramAssists individuals with significant disabilities in achieving independence by providing services that enable them to live and function in the homes and communities of their choice. Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors and program participants jointly develop a plan to provide a viable, cost-effective alternative to institutional living; may help maintain or improve employment opportunities; and may include independent living skills training, home and vehicle modification, peer counseling and advocacy, adaptive aids, prosthetics, consumer-managed personal assistance services, and recreational therapy.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (Part B) – Federal legislation designed to provide students with disabilities ages 3-21 equal opportunities to participate in and benefit from public education. Part B has the responsibility of assuring that children with disabilities receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

Individual Service Plan/ Plan of Care – Plan developed by the person and their service team that designates the services and supports needed by the person.

Individualized Educational Program (IEP) – A written educational plan for a specific student based on a multidisciplinary evaluation (including, as applicable, health vision, hearing, social and emotional status; general intelligence; academic performance; communicative status; and motor abilities) and developed by the IEP team (parents of the student, regular education teacher, special education teacher, individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the student, etc., and the student) and which acts as a written record of decisions made at the IEP meeting.

Informed Consent – Ability to make a decision, particularly a medical decision, requiring an understanding of 1) the nature of the proceedings; 2) the foreseeable risks; 3) the expected benefits; and 4) the available alternatives.

Intellectual DisabilityThe presence of a sub-average general intellectual functioning associated with or resulting in impairments in adaptive behavior, including mental retardation, acquired brain injuries (stroke), traumatic brain injuries, Autism, and Alzheimer’s disease. Intellectual disabilities are chemical or physical alterations within the brain that result in different thought processes.

Interdisciplinary Review – A review by a team of professionals for the purpose of determining the presence of a developmental disability as defined in this Chapter.  Professionals conducting this review must have knowledge of diagnoses and functional limitations associated with developmental disabilities.

Interdisciplinary Team – A group that reviews information, data and input from a person to make recommendations relevant to the needs of the person.  The team consists of the person, his legal representative if applicable, professionals of varied disciplines who have knowledge relevant to the person’s needs and may include his family members along with others the person has designated.

Intervention – Action taken to correct, remediate, or prevent identified or potential medical or developmental problems.

Language Development – Growth of expressive and receptive communication skills, and skills related to the understanding and production of language.

Learning Disability (LD)A lifelong disorder that affects a person’s ability to either interpret what he/she sees and hears or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can appear in many ways—as specific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination, self-control or attention. A person with a learning disability may have normal intelligence; however, there is a significant discrepancy in intelligence level and ability to learn and perform certain tasks.

Legal Advocacy – Litigating and legislating to establish the legal rights of persons with developmental disabilities to insure that those rights are not violated. This form of advocacy may be used to benefit individuals or classes of people.

Living Options – A variety of service settings wherein people with developmental disabilities live, including but not limited to extended family living, supported living, community homes, group homes, and residential facilities.

Medicaid – A federal/state funded program authorized by Title XIX of the Social Security Act to provide medical assistance for certain people and families with low incomes and resources who fall into five broad coverage groups: children, pregnant women, adults in families with dependent children, people with disabilities, and people over age 65.

Medicare – A federal government insurance program that provides medical expense coverage to persons over age 65 or if the person is eligible for Social Security benefits. It is comprised of two parts: Hospital Insurance (Part A) and Medical Insurance (Part B).

Mental Illness – Refers to severe and persistent forms of mental disorder such as depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, panic and sever anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, that affect the person’s brain.

Mental Retardation (MR) – A disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning   (IQ of approximately 70 or below on an individually administered IQ test) and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before the age of 18. Mental retardation refers to a particular state of functioning that begins in childhood, has many dimensions, and is affected positively by individualized supports.   Other updated and appropriate terms used more broadly are developmental disabilities or intellectual disorders or cognitive disorders.

Most integrated setting – An environment that includes the full range of service and support options that reflect the desires and goals of the person and that address the needs of the person and which promotes the full participation in daily life and activities.

Multidisciplinary – Refers to two or more professionals (like psychologists, social workers, etc.) working together and sharing information in the evaluation, assessment, and development of a person’s individual education or service plan.

Neurological Dysfunction/Impairment – The inability to perform sensory or motor functions appropriately due to dame or deficiency in the nervous system of the body.

People First Language – The respectful way of talking or writing about persons with disabilities in a manner that identifies and emphasizes the “person first” and the disability second. The use of people first language encourages that all references about a person’s needs, disabling condition, use of specialized equipment, etc., are stated following the reference to the person. Example – Instead of saying, “A cerebral palsied man confined to a wheelchair,” say “A man with cerebral palsy who uses a wheelchair.”

Person – A person with a developmental disability.  It is also understood that it includes the legal representative of the person in instances where one has been appointed to act on behalf of the person.

Personal Care AssistantA PCA is someone who assists a person with a disability in activities of daily living such as: bathing, dressing, mobility, transferring in and out of bed or wheelchair, toileting, eating, cooking, cleaning house, on-the-job personal support, handling money and planning daily activities.

Plan Coordinator – The individual who is responsible for guiding the support team in development of the support plan for the person with a disability.  The plan coordinator assures that the goals identified by the person are addressed in the support plan.

Positive Behavior Supports – Proactive intervention for problem behavior that examines the cause of the problem behavior, eliminates the factors that cause it and prevents it from happening again.

Protected Person – Person who has been determined by the court to be in need of a guardian. Therefore, a protected person for whom a guardian has been appointed has been determined to be unable to make decisions about various personal affairs of their life without the assistance or protection of a guardian. These decisions can involve issues relating to the person’s health, care, safety, habilitation, therapeutic needs, financial affairs, and other areas of the protected person’s life.

Protective Services – Services that assist people who are unable to manage their own resources or to protect themselves from neglect, exploitation, or hazards. Examples of such services are outreach and referrals, counseling, case management, follow-along, guardianship, financial support, legal aid, and housekeeping assistance.

Provider – A person, partnership, corporation, state agency, or other entity that provides developmental disabilities services and receives either state or federal funds or both.

Regional Office – An administrative unit of the office, subject to the administration, supervision, and control of the office and through which the office provides and develops developmental disabilities services.  Regional offices are responsible for the following:

(a) Providing determination for entry into the system, development of the support profile, and support coordination.

(b) Providing individual and family support services, living options, and other developmental disabilities services directly or by contract or individual agreements as determined by the office.

Rehabilitation – Refers to the process (or programs) aimed at teaching people who are recently disabled the fundamental skills for independence.

Rehabilitation Counselor – Position within the Department of Human Services/Division of Rehabilitation Services that provides vocation rehabilitation services (eligibility, vocational counseling, referral and placement plans) in order to obtain employment and/or independent living for people with substantial vocational impediments due to physical or mental disabilities.

Residential Facilities – Living options that are certified and licensed by the department to provide residential services to sixteen or more persons.

Section 504 – A part of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. This section states that no program or activity receiving federal funds can exclude, deny benefit to, or discriminate against any person on the basis of disability. It also requires access for people with a disability to all public buildings.

SeizureSudden, uncontrollable spasm of muscles caused by excessive electrical activity in the brain.  See Epilepsy.

Self-AdvocateAn individual who speaks or acts for him/herself.  This includes making choices and decisions about one’s life.  See Consumer.

Self-DeterminationThe right of people with disabilities to make choices about their own lives, to have the same rights and responsibilities as everyone else, and to speak and advocate for themselves.

Services Developmental disability services

Service Coordination – Assistance to obtain medical, habilitation, social and other related services and supports such as guardianship, legal, self-advocacy, housing, follow-up outreach, referral, financial or payee assistance. (Also referred to as case management).

Social Security Disability Income (SSDI) – Program financed by Social Security taxes paid by workers, employers and self-employed persons. Disability benefits are payable to workers with disabilities, widow(er) s or adults with disabilities since childhood who are otherwise eligible. The monthly disability benefit payment is based on the Social Security earnings record of the insured worker on whose Social Security the disability claim is filed.

Speech Disorder/ ImpairmentAny of several speech problems that include articulation impairment (omissions, substitutions or distortions of sound), voice impairment (inappropriate pitch, loudness or voice quality) and fluency impairment (abnormal rate of speaking, speech interruptions and repetition of sounds, words, phrases or sentences) which interfere with effective communication.

Substantial functional limitations – Documented evidence of limitations in present functioning considered within the context of community environments typical of the age, peers, and culture of the person.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) – Program financed through general tax revenues. Benefits are payable to adults or children who have disabilities, meet the income, resource and living arrangement requirements and are otherwise eligible. The monthly payment is standardized in all States, but not everyone gets the same amount because it may be supplemented by the State or decreased by other income and resources.

Supports – The resources and individual strategies necessary to promote the development, education, interests and personal well-being of a person with mental retardation and other disabilities. Supports can be provided by a parent, friend, teacher, psychologist, doctor, or by another appropriate person or agency.

Support Plan – An individualized plan that coordinates supports and services to assist the person in reaching his desired outcomes and reflects the vision, personal preferences, life goals, and diverse formal and informal support needs of the person.  The plan is developed by the person and his support team.  Persons with developmental disabilities, family members and others chosen by the person or the family, and those legally empowered to make decisions for the person, are the primary decision makers regarding services and supports such persons receive, including the choice of available living options.

Support Profile – A summary of identified supports or services that addresses the expressed needs and desires of the person and that is used in the development of the support plan for that person.  It is developed prior to the person receiving supports or services.

Support Team – A team consisting of a person with a developmental disability, his/her plan coordinator, and may include his/her family and others whom the person chooses to assist him/her in developing a support plan.

System – The developmental disabilities services system.

Tourette SyndromeAn inherited neurological disorder characterized by sudden, involuntary, repetitive muscle movements and uncontrollable vocal sounds called tics which can include inappropriate words and phrases. A person with TS may touch other people excessively or repeat actions obsessively and unnecessarily.

Transition – The process of bridging the time and environments between two settings, programs, or life situations (e.g., from school to adult services, or from an adult service/support system to independent work and living situations).

Transition Plan – A designed Program outlining the transition of a person between two settings as described in Transition above. The plan identifies the services needed for the person, the activities that must occur, and the timelines and responsibilities for completion of these activities.

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) A brain injury from externally inflicted trauma such as incidents involving motor vehicles, falls, acts of violence and sports injuries. TBI can range from mild (concussions) to severe, with outcomes ranging from a few symptoms to lifelong impairment.

Vocational Rehabilitation–  An agency that provides counseling, training, education, medical, transportation, and other support services to persons with physical or mental disabilities in order to help them become independent or job-ready.

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